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Photo: Cochise, a noted Apache Chief, was known for resisting intrusion by white settlers in his territory. (Beryl Ford Collection)

Early Tulsa: White Settlers Take Over

BY (Debo 58) (Debo The Road to Disappearance 330)

Throughout the late 1880s there were a number of attempts by Creeks to stem the tide of white settlers who ignored citizenship rules and laid claim to land owned by the Indian nation. But these efforts were mostly ignored. Angie Debo writes, “In general, however, they [white settlers] hardly realized that they were in the midst of an Indian settlement. They were as little troubled by their precarious right of residence in the Creek country.”

In her book "The Road to Disappearance," Debo documents Native American reaction to white immigration. She explains, “The full bloods watched the increasing white immigration with bewilderment and fear. Wilson Clark, a Euchee, describes his impressions as follows: ‘Must be time of 1889 or 1890, I see white men coming into my country. Some men would be walking and carry a stick on shoulder with a little bundle tied to it. We don’t know where the men are going or where they come from.’”